Coronavirus research at Fraunhofer ITEM

Medical research on SARS-CoV-2

Fraunhofer vs. Corona

As an institute with decades of experience in infection and airway research, drug development, biomedical engineering, and in the field of chemical risk assessment, Fraunhofer ITEM can make an important contribution to scientific progress in the fight against the new coronavirus.

Finding a drug against corona

Researchers of the international consortium iCAIR® are working on the development of novel anti-infective agents to treat or prevent clinically significant diseases of the respiratory tract caused by bacteria, viruses, and fungi – and they recently started a project aimed at developing therapeutics to combat the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.

 

Give-a-Breath Challenge

In the global call for ideas "Give-a-Breath Challenge", Munich Re and Fraunhofer started seeking concepts and ideas for emergency ventilation systems and related equipment in March. The winners have now been selected: The subchallenge for non-invasive ventilators was won by two teams – one of which is the team SmartCPAP, whose concept for a non-invasive ventilation system based on 3D-printable components convinced the jury. Fraunhofer ITEM is part of this team. The next steps will include clinical studies, functional tests and pilot use.

Fight against corona: overview of current projects

BEAT-COVID: Advanced therapy strategies against the pandemic

The present SARS-coronavirus-2 pandemic with all its effects on society – both health and economic – highlights the urgency of developing new therapies for COVID-19 treatment. At the same time, it demonstrates the necessity to become well prepared for new virus infections we may be facing in the future. To help control the current pandemic and brace for novel pathogens that may cause future pandemics, Fraunhofer researchers have initiated the project BEAT-COVID to develop independent novel therapy strategies and build up platform technologies that will enable rapid and targeted development of new drugs against as yet unknown pathogens that may emerge. Based on their expertise in preclinical and clinical drug development, five Fraunhofer Institutes and cooperating universities, coordinated by Fraunhofer ITEM, want to address the following objectives: prevent the virus from entering host cells, combat the virus itself, and control the excessive immune response triggered by the virus.

Read the press release of October 19, 2020

Project partners: Fraunhofer IZI, Fraunhofer ISC, Fraunhofer IAP, Fraunhofer IZM

Contact: Prof. Jens Hohlfeld

RENACO: Pancreas drug nafamostat an option for COVID-19 treatment?

In the face of the pandemic spread of SARS-CoV-2 there is an urgent need for effective drugs and vaccines. To speed up the process, existing drugs that have already been approved for treatment of other conditions are tested for their efficacy against the new coronavirus. Scientists of the German Primate Center (DPZ) in Göttingen, Germany, and the Fraunhofer ITEM are now receiving 1.6 million euros from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) for a collaborative project investigating the efficacy of nafamostat.

Read press release 

Project partners: German Primate Center

Our contacts: Prof. Dr. Armin Braun

DRECOR: Development of new inhalation therapies by drug repurposing

The current global health emergency caused by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic poses an urgent need for vaccines and drugs to prevent infections and manage COVID-19. By drug repurposing, i.e. by using existing active agents with known safety profiles or drugs approved already for treating other diseases or conditions for new therapeutic purposes, Fraunhofer scientists are aiming to quickly identify drugs and develop therapies for COVID-19 treatment. This approach is used in the DRECOR project, addressing above all the following goals: First of all, the scientists want to identify suitable candidate molecules targeting the lungs and airways and formulate these for inhaled or systemic administration. For inhaled administration of these drugs, a prototype of a smart medical device for use in clinical trials will be created in addition. Furthermore, the team will set up complex in-vitro models and test systems that will also be available for use in other projects targeting different therapeutic areas. In the long run, DRECOR is aimed at establishing a multidisciplinary drug formulation and delivery network and process, so as to be better prepared for future pandemics. Seven Fraunhofer Institutes are collaborating in the DRECOR project, coordinated by Fraunhofer IME.

Project partners: Fraunhofer IME, Fraunhofer IGB, Fraunhofer ISC, Fraunhofer IBMT, Fraunhofer ITEM, Fraunhofer IAP, Fraunhofer IZI, Fraunhofer Project Center for Drug Discovery and Delivery at Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Israel)

Our contacts: Prof. Dr. Armin Braun, Dr. Gerhard Pohlmann

QUELLE: Tracking the risk of airborne infections – what is the role of aerosols?

According to the current state of knowledge, SARS-CoV-2 viruses and many other pathogens are transmitted primarily by droplet infection. To reduce the risk of infection, a broad range of legal and voluntary measures have been implemented, for example social distancing and the wearing of face masks. An issue of constant debate is the transmission of viruses through exhaled aerosols – tiny (< 5 µm) liquid droplets that remain suspended in the air for a long time. Fraunhofer ITEM experts now intend to use existing, appropriate measurement techniques to systematically investigate the proportion of fine aerosol particles in exhaled air and whether the face masks currently in use provide efficient protection against exhaled aerosols. The researchers hope that their results will contribute to a better understanding of coronavirus transmission and will help to better assess the relevance, suitability and prioritization of corresponding protective measures, in particular in the health and geriatric care sectors. In addition, they aim to evaluate the efficiency of passive protective measures, such as ventilation of indoor areas.

Our contact: Dr. Katharina Schwarz

Filter4Flow: Intelligent viral filter for SARS-CoV-2 patients

Patients experiencing a severe course of COVID-19 often require ventilation, some of them with a non-invasive method, others in an intensive care unit. In either case, the patient's lung function and respiratory parameters have to be monitored. Patients and also the health-care staff should be provided with the best possible protection from a viral infection. An intelligent viral filter for use with both non-invasive and invasive ventilation is aimed at enabling this high level of protection. In the project Filter4Flow, Fraunhofer scientists are collaborating with the companies Aircontrols, ELK and Christoph Manegold MT-Consult to develop such a smart viral filter – a novel combination of fast sensor elements for measuring the flow rate, pressure and inhaled gas and a viral filter. The signals are digitized and transmitted quickly and wirelessly to a ventilation or patient monitoring system (e.g. an app). The intelligent viral filter allows precise, reliable and at the same time cost-effective breath monitoring in numerous patients, while also providing a filter function that protects both patients and staff from infection. This can help prevent the dreaded shortage of ventilation resources.

Project partners: Fraunhofer IST, Fraunhofer IIS, Aircontrols, ELK, Christoph Manegold MT-Consult

Our contact: Dr. Gerhard Pohlmann

CoClean-up: Controlling the spread of SARS-CoV-2 by means of highly efficient indoor air disinfection

Tiny droplets, also referred to as aerosols, in the exhaled breath of infected individuals are considered the main vector spreading the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. In the project CoClean-up, we are assisting Fraunhofer IKTS in developing a system for purification of the air extracted from enclosed indoor spaces. The system is based on electrochemical total oxidation, a technology allowing complete elimination of organic substance. This treatment also makes sure that no endotoxins or other substances resulting from incomplete degradation of airborne pollutants can get into the indoor air, in particular in ventilated or air-conditioned indoor areas. After successful development of a prototype, the scientists intend to rapidly proceed with system optimization and integration as well as scale-up, and pursue the launch into the market. This highly efficient indoor air disinfection technology shall also be used in the future to prevent viruses from spreading.

Project partner: Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems IKTS

Our contact: Dr. Katharina Schwarz

Immunovid‐19: Preventing SARS-CoV-2 from entering cells

There are different therapeutic targets for SARS-CoV-2 infection. One approach is to prevent the virus from entering host cells. This is the development concept Fraunhofer ITEM and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf as a partner are pursuing in the project Immunovid‐19. The partners have joined forces to develop a therapeutic approach aiming to prevent the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 from entering cells by means of a fusion protein, using the soluble form of the ACE2 protein. The scientists are currently developing a recombinant CHO production cell line for manufacturing of the fusion protein.

Project partner: Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

Our contact: Dr. Corinna Lüer

redCMC: Regulatory-technical shortcut for manufacturing of a passive vaccine against SARS-CoV-2

Before a new vaccine reaches the stage of clinical application, it has to go through defined development phases in line with regulatory and process-related technical requirements. Using a passive vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 as an example, the project partners are closely collaborating with Paul-Ehrlich-Institut to develop an approach aimed at drastically reducing the time required for bioprocess development and first GMP manufacturing of an investigational medicinal product for clinical trials – from previously more than 15 months to less than 6 months. This requires the partners to rethink both quality and regulatory aspects. The key element is an abridged bioprocessing and regulatory setup which, if it proves feasible and can be validated, would quickly provide access to a therapeutic solution – without compromising patient safety in any way. Should this regulatory-technical shortcut turn out to be successful, the principle could generally be used for the development of new biopharmaceuticals, thereby accelerating their translation from bench to bedside. In future pandemics, this would enable faster development of new vaccines.

Our contact: Dr. Kathrin Bohle

Safe-Anticorona: Investigating the pharmacokinetics and safety of monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in a model

Monoclonal antibodies, which can be harvested for example from the immune plasma of recovered COVID-19 patients and are able to inactivate the virus (neutralizing antibodies) are considered promising drug candidates. In a special lung model, Fraunhofer ITEM scientists want to study the safety and pharmacokinetics (i.e. the whole range of processes a drug undergoes in the body: absorption, distribution in the body, biochemical processing, and elimination) of a monoclonal antibody. The model they use for this is the isolated perfused rat lung (IPL). In this ex-vivo organ model, they are investigating the safety, bioavailability and kinetics of intravenously administered antibodies. In addition, they want to elucidate whether intravenously administered antibodies are actually delivered to the site of action of a SARS-CoV-2 infection, which is the lung, or whether inhaled administration is the more promising route.

Our contact: Dr. Christina Hesse