On the one hand, bacteria develop different mechanisms by means of spontaneous gene mutations, enabling them to survive antibiotic treatment. Examples are enzymes that cleave and thereby inactivate antibiotic agents, transporter pumps which simply push antibiotics out of the microbial cell, and gene mutations causing elimination of the cell target which the antibiotic attacks. During antibiotic treatment, pathogens which happen to be resistant to this treatment through one of these mechanisms have an increased chance of survival. While all susceptible pathogens are killed by the antibiotic agent, resistant germs survive and multiply. These pathogens are able to transfer their resistance to other bacteria and thus to further propagate this trait – the antibiotic is then no longer effective in these germs.
On the other hand, pathogens frequently form biofilms. Biofilms are aggregates of bacteria embedded within a self-produced extracellular matrix that acts as a protective cover against attacks by the host’s immune system or antibiotic treatment. And what is more: the micromilieu in the biofilm causes a change in bacterial behavior. In particular inside the biofilm, probably as a result of the limited supply of oxygen and nutrients, the bacteria enter a “dormant” state in which they are less susceptible to antibiotic treatment, as many antibiotics kill only dividing bacteria. Consequently, antibiotic treatment frequently eliminates only microorganisms in the outer area of a biofilm, while the bacteria embedded in the interior survive, become resistant, and start growing again.
Effective new strategies for the fight against resistant pathogens are, therefore, urgently needed – in particular for treating lung infections, which according to the World Health Organization are among the leading causes of death . This problem has now been addressed by Fraunhofer ITEM scientists, who have set out to join the fight against multiresistant bacteria and help develop novel antimicrobial medications and inhalable antibiotics.
- Review on Antimicrobial Resistance. Antimicrobial Resistance: Tackling a Crisis for the Health and Wealth of Nations. 2014
- WHO Fact sheet N°310